I. The standard The Big Bang Big Bang model
The SBBM assumes that the Big Bang could be the beginning of the universe.
This assumption has not been proven, but there is no evidence against it. If it is true, then the universe is 13.7 billion years old (the age of the Big Bang). The universe is limited in mass-energy: 4.6% of the universe is visible matter (emits and absorbs light/electromagnetic radiation); 23% is dark matter (does not emit and absorb light/electromagnetic radiation, but has gravitational effects); and 72.4% is dark energy (a field which causes repulsion). With respect to visible matter there is 1053 kg of mass, which is approximately 1080 baryons (protons and neutrons).
This is configured in about 1022 stars in 1011 galaxies. Thus the Big Bang Model shows the universe to have finite parameters, which is different from previous assumptions which held the universe to be infinite in time and mass.
This mass energy is united through a dynamic space-time field. Space is not an empty vacuum (as Newton and others conceived it), but rather a dynamic field (which may be likened to a sheet of elastic) which has properties, conditions, and constants. It is dimensional and orientable; its geometry is compressed and reconfigured through the density of mass-energy in it; it can warp and vibrate, and it can affect the mass energy in it. For this reason, the universe can be likened to a balloon which has paint on its elastic surface.
At the Big Bang, the balloon had a very tiny radius, and as it continues to expand, the matter on it (e.g. the paint molecules) move away from one another. Note that space-time itself (e.g. the elastic of the balloon) is expanding and this causes the clusters of matter to move away from one another. There is no true center, because everything is a “center” and nothing is at “the center.” It is highly likely that the universe will continue to expand like this forever because of the abundance of dark energy causing repulsion within it.
(to be continued..)
GOD AND MODERN PHYSICS privious notes:
Intro: Astrophysics – Can science show God created the universe?