V. Evidence for a beginning from the law of entropy
There are three mutually corroborating pieces of evidence of a beginning of bouncing universes (assuming both three-dimensional and higher-dimensional space) that come from the law of entropy.
We will first describe the law of entropy and then examine each of the three pieces of evidence.
Definition of the law of entropy:
Isolated energetic systems move from states of organized complexity to disorganized states; they do not move from disorganized states to organized complex ones (because the probability of disorganized states is far greater than that of organized complex ones). For this reason, isolated energetic systems run down. Examples: billiard balls move from a racked state to a scattered, disorganized state when struck, but not vice versa; a cup of coffee moves from hot state to cool state, but not vice versa; gas moves out of an uncorked bottle but does not flow back into it, etc… Inasmuch as the universe is an isolated system, it too will run down (increase in entropy).
First indication of finite bouncing from law of entropy ratio of starlight to CMB radiation.
There are two kinds of electromagnetic energy in the universe: starlight (organized complex spectrum), and cosmic microwave background radiation (diffuse, homogeneous radiation). Every hypothetical bounce of the universe would convert all starlight into cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Therefore, if the universe bounced a million times, then the CMB radiation would be a million times greater than starlight. Similarly, if the universe bounced a billion times, then the CMB radiation would be a billion times greater than starlight. If the universe bounced an infinite number of times, then all electromagnetic radiation would be CMB radiation, and there would be no starlight. This is not the case in our universe where CMB radiation is only one hundred times greater than starlight indicating an upper limit of one hundred bounces, if, indeed, the universe bounced at all.
Second indication of finite bouncing from law of entropy – Tolman’s limit
Every bounce produces increased radiation in the universe; this increased radiation produces increased outward pressure. This increased outward pressure, in turn, produces longer and larger cycles (bounces). Therefore, if one goes back in time from today’s finitely large and finitely long cycle, then one will reach an infinitely short cycle with an infinitely small radius (a beginning) in the finite past. This would constitute a beginning of bouncing, and a beginning of the universe.
Third indication of finite bouncing from law of entropy – low entropy of our Big Bang.
If the universe were to collapse, there would be a tremendous increase in entropy (as independently calculated by Roger Penrose, Willy Fischler, and Thomas Banks). Therefore, if the universe had oscillated an infinite number of times prior to our Big Bang, entropy should have been at its highest possible level at the Big Bang. In point of fact, the entropy of the universe at the Big Bang was very low, indicating that it did not oscillate an infinite number of times. Indeed it does not seem likely that the universe bounced at all because the odds against our universe having its low entropy at the Big Bang (as calculated by Roger Penrose) is already 1010 to one (which is exceedingly, exceedingly improbable); and if there were a previous bounce, the entropy of the universe at the previous bounce would have been much lower (meaning that the odds against its occurrence would have been higher – if that can be imagined).
The above three pieces of evidence show the exceedingly high improbability of an infinitely bouncing universe (including those conceived to occur in higher dimensional space). It is reasonable to conclude from this that if the universe bounced at all, it did not bounce an infinite number of times, and therefore, had a beginning.
(to be continued..)
GOD AND MODERN PHYSICS privious notes:
Intro: Astrophysics – Can science show God created the universe?
I. The standard The Big Bang model
II. The Big Bang model: A well-corroborated theory
III. What is the significance of a beginning?
IV. Three pre-Big Bang models