VII. Evidence of supernatural design from our low entropy universe and anthropic values of our cosmological constants
There are several conditions of our universe necessary for the emergence of any complex life form. Many of these conditions are so exceedingly improbable that it is not reasonable to expect that they could have occurred by pure chance (these highly improbable but necessary conditions for life are termed “anthropic coincidences”). For this reason many physicists attribute their occurrence to supernatural design. Some other physicists prefer to believe instead in trillions upon trillions of “other universes” (which are unobserved and likely unobservable) to lower the improbability of these conditions. Therefore, these anthropic coincidences can only be explained by belief – either belief in a superintellect that designed them or belief in trillions upon trillions of unobserved universes. Current multiple universe (multiverse) theories have shaky assumptions and require as much fine-tuning as the conditions they are meant to explain. Therefore, belief in a transcendent superintellect has considerable probative force.
The high improbability of a pure chance occurrence of our low-entropy universe
A low-entropy universe is necessary for the emergence, development, and complexification of life forms because a high entropy universe would be too run down to allow for such development. Roger Penrose has calculated the exceedingly low probability of a pure chance occurrence of our low-entropy universe as 1010 to one. Absent a natural explanation of this phenomenon, one is left with two choices to explain the initial conditions of our universe: either they were selected by a super-intellectual creator or they occurred naturally in one universe amidst trillions upon trillions upon trillions of other unobserved universes. Penrose himself concludes, “In order to produce a universe resembling the one in which we live, the Creator would have to aim for an absurdly tiny volume of the phase space of possible universes—about 1/1010 of the entire volume, for the situation under consideration.”
The high improbability of five other anthropic conditions (based on cosmological constants)
A cosmological constant is a number that controls the equations of physics; the equations of physics, in turn, describe the laws of nature. Therefore, these numbers control the laws of nature (and whether these laws of nature will be hospitable or hostile to any life form). Some examples of constants are: the speed of light constant (c= 300,000 km per second), Planck’s constant (h = 6.6 x 10-34 joule seconds), the gravitational attraction constant (G = 6.67 x 10-11), the strong nuclear force constant (gs = 15), the weak force constant (gw = 1.43 x 10-62), the mass of the proton (mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg), rest mass of an electron (me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg), and charge of an electron proton (e = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs).
There are several other constants, but these pertain to the following anthropic coincidences (highly improbable conditions required for life).
A. If the gravitational constant (G) or weak force constant (gw) varied from their values by an exceedingly small fraction (higher or lower) – one part in 1050 (.00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001) then either the universe would have suffered a catastrophic collapse or would have exploded throughout its expansion, both of which options would have prevented the emergence and development of any life form. This cannot be reasonably explained by pure chance.
B. If the strong nuclear force constant were higher than its value (15) by only 2%, there would be no hydrogen in the universe (and therefore no nuclear fuel or water – this would have prohibited life). If, on the other hand, the strong nuclear force constant had been 2% lower than its value then no element heavier than hydrogen could have emerged in the universe (helium, carbon, etc). This would have been equally detrimental to the development of life. This anthropic coincidence also seems to lie beyond the boundaries of pure chance.
C. If the gravitational constant, electromagnetism, or the “proton mass relative to the electron mass” varied from their values by only a tiny fraction (higher or lower), then all stars would be either blue giants or red dwarfs. These kinds of stars would not emit the proper kind of heat and light for a long enough period to allow for the emergence, development, and complexification of life forms. Again, these anthropic coincidences are beyond pure chance occurrence.
D. If the weak force constant had been slightly smaller or larger than its value, then supernovae explosions would never have occurred. If these explosions had not occurred, there would be no carbon, iron, or earth-like planets.
E. Fred Hoyle and William Fowler discovered the exceedingly high improbability of oxygen, carbon, he- lium and beryllium having the precise resonance levels to allow for both carbon abundance and carbon bonding (necessary for life). This anthropic coincidence was so striking that it caused Hoyle to abandon his previous atheism and declare: “A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question.”
(to be concluded..)
GOD AND MODERN PHYSICS privious notes:
Intro: Astrophysics – Can science show God created the universe?
I. The standard The Big Bang model
II. The Big Bang model: A well-corroborated theory
III. What is the significance of a beginning?
IV. Three pre-Big Bang models
V. Evidence for a beginning from the law of entropy
VI. Evidence of a beginning of all expanding pre-Big Bang models from space-time geometry